GB-TECH Solar Energy Branch

The energy sources are many and varied, but they are limited and require permanent preservation so that they will not be depleted and less. Therefore, people are always searching for new sources of energy. By protecting the environment from pollution caused by these sources and relying on clean energy that does not cause any harm to the environment.

What is solar energy?

Solar energy is the energy that is produced from the sun, and it is a type of renewable energy. The researchers say that the energy the Earth receives from the sun within one hour is sufficient for the globe’s energy needs for a whole year, and that the quantities that can be exploited from the solar energy are equivalent to times Exploited energy from petroleum, natural gas, coal and uranium.

The sun is the basis for all other energy sources. Energy sources, such as coal, oil, and gas, have been formed by the sun’s heat and pressure throughout the ages.

Solar energy is produced in two ways:

First: Concentrated solar energy, which is used in the commercial scale by turning the turbines to generate electricity, and is done using mirrors and lenses.

  • Second: A method in which solar energy is generated using photovoltaic cells, and by using conductors the sunlight is converted into electricity, and it is done on a small scale, where it is used to supply homes and companies with electricity.


Solar energy


The agriculture sector in the Nile Delta in Egypt has faced an energy crisis, as increasing demand for electricity in cities leads to frequent shortages and blackouts. Since most irrigation canals are below ground level and require pumps to transport water to the fields, the energy crisis in turn leads to disruptions in the regular irrigation schedules of crops, which in turn leads to lower yields of crops.

Pumping groundwater into agricultural lands:

Groundwater is the main source of irrigation for a lot of lands with large areas, as it generates the electricity needed to run water pumps by making concrete terraces in which solar cells are installed to deliver electricity to the pumps until the groundwater is extracted and connected to the land to be irrigated at a much lower cost compared to solar-based irrigation equipment.

Solar powered submersible pump to lift water from underground.


The major car companies in developed countries tend to develop cars used for tillage purposes that work through the use of photovoltaic cells, which convert solar energy into electrical energy, in countries that are characterized by very hot summers, thus reducing dependence on oil and eliminating pollution as well. In addition to reducing costs and employing solar energy at its best.

Consequently, the importance of solar energy in agriculture is reflected in the prevention of greenhouse gas emissions by reducing ineffective agricultural practices, and these systems have proven their effectiveness in terms of users ’confidence and cost, other than their ability to actually raise agricultural productivity levels all over the world.

Heating water

Solar heaters are mirror-like panels that are installed on the roofs of buildings or homes and generate instant water heating, and this water can be used in showers or swimming pool water, and in some developed countries this hot water is used to generate electrical energy for cooling or heating.

Advantages of using solar heaters:

  1. In some developed countries and societies that exploit the presence of alternative energy or solar energy, they exploit approximately 50% of the radiation, and thus this is one of the best ratios.
  2. These heaters live for many years, but they still need maintenance every four years.
  3. There are many small types that you will be able to purchase because of their reasonable and inexpensive prices.
  4. The solar heaters that will compensate you for the electrical machines that heat the water will reduce the electric bill by at least 30% per month, and therefore they are natural, inexpensive and economical.
  5. The higher the temperature in a region, this will increase the efficiency of solar heaters, will provide more water and more energy, and in solar panels, if the temperatures are high, this will reduce their efficiency.
  6. The solar heater contains five basic components, which are metal anchor structures, a thermally insulated tank, a coil for back-up electrical storage, and finally solar panels.

Electricity generation.

Electricity is generated through solar energy in two ways, as follows:

Optical Power:

It has been in use for 30 years, and it depends on the presence of photoelectric cells consisting of thin layers of silicon and other materials, which are square semiconductors, and when sunlight reaches them, chemical reactions inside the cell begin to release an electron that generates an electrical current that can supply a full structure of energy.

Thermal energy:

It is the traditional technique that uses reflectors that focus the sun’s rays to form steam to power generators. To move the turbines to generate electricity. Directing mirrors that reflect sunlight into a large tower with fluid in it, which turns into steam that drives the turbines and thus generates electricity.

Seawater desalination.

Seawater desalination is powered by solar energy using solar distillation in an inexpensive way, and countries that do not have large quantities of fresh water can use solar energy to convert salt water into fresh water.


Other uses for solar energy

  1. Street lighting.
  2. Operating some electrical devices.
  3. Satellite operation.
  4. Some cars powered by solar energy.
  5. Issuing the electric energy needed for navigation and marine vessels.
  6. In telecommunications operations as “radio receivers”.
  7. Solar cooking.